He was captured by American soldiers and held as a prisoner of war for several months. After World War II, he committed suicide to escape capture. Although Ratzinger insisted on the superiority of the Catholic faith to other religions, which he deemed insufficient as means to salvation, he was also closely involved in Pope John Paul’s historic efforts to reach out to other faiths, especially Judaism and Islam. Award-winning British actor Benedict Cumberbatch is known for playing the titular detective of the BBC's 'Sherlock' and the sorcerer Doctor Strange in the Marvel Cinematic Universe. Ratzinger entered the seminary in 1939. Alienated by the student protests at Tübingen, he returned to Bavaria, to the University of Regensburg. Or should I say, the Pope is the Catholic. In 2010 allegations of sexual and physical abuse by parish priests and in parochial schools—particularly in Germany, Ireland, and the United States—brought Benedict, and his role in the cases in Germany in particular, under close media scrutiny. The Vatican also denounced the charge that, as prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Benedict had been responsible for the Vatican's policy of covering up cases of sexual abuse, declaring that his handling of the cases showed “wisdom and firmness.”. In 1943, Ratzinger and fellow seminarians were drafted into the anti-aircraft corps. He turned to theological studies after the war, helping found the influential journal Communio. In 1941 he was compelled to join the Hitler Youth, and in 1943 he was drafted into the German military, serving in an antiaircraft unit in Bavaria before being sent to Hungary to set tank traps in 1945. Americas. Benedict XVI served as pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 2005 to 2013. Ratzinger defended and reaffirmed Catholic doctrine, including teaching on topics such as birth control, homosexuality and inter-religious dialogue. Louis XVI was the last king of France (1774–92) in the line of Bourbon monarchs preceding the French Revolution of 1789. Pope Benedict XVI grew up under war reparations from World War I, as the Nazi regime was gaining power. He made his first trip to the Western Hemisphere, visiting Brazil, where he canonized Father Antonio Galvão (1739–1822), the first native-born Brazilian saint. He was briefly a member of the Hitler Youth in his early teens after membership became mandatory in 1941. The Facts About “Pope Benedict XVI” – Joseph Alois Ratzinger What You Need To Know About the Man who Claimed to be the Pope from 2005-2013 "Benedict XVI" On April 19, 2005, the German "cardinal" Fr. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Benedict XV was Pope from 1914-1922, so it's curious that the resignation came at the eight year mark of 2005-2013. “I can only say that with the slow waning of my physical forces, I’m on a pilgrimage towards home," he wrote, adding: "It is a great gift for me to be surrounded, on this last stretch of this sometimes tiring road, by a degree of love and goodwill that I could never have imagined.”. Former pope Benedict XVI reported to be seriously ill. Ex-pontiff, 93, has shingles after being in poor health for some time, says German newspaper Published: 3 Aug 2020 . He was viewed as a reformer during this time. Ratzinger was briefly a member of the Hitler Youth in his early teens after membership became mandatory in 1941. He said that cultural and historical change had led … In 1953 he was awarded a doctorate in theology at the University of Munich. He condemned liberation theology and suppressed more-liberal theologians such as the Brazilian Leonardo Boff and the American Charles Curran. Benedict served his final day as pope on February 28, 2013. Benedict XVI shocked the world in February when he became the first pope to resign in almost 600 years. Last Testament: In His Own Words. Share with your friends. Later, he moved to the University of Muenster (1963-66) and took a chair in dogmatic theology at the University of Tübingen. Caritas in Veritate. Heinrich Himmler was the commander of Adolf Hitler's Schutzstaffel, and later of the Gestapo in Nazi Germany. Benedict XVI $3.99 - $15.73. After earning his teaching license in 1957, he taught dogma and theology at the higher school of philosophy and theology in Freising until 1959, later moving to the University of Bonn (1959–69) and also teaching at universities in Münster (1963–66) and—at the invitation of the theologian Hans Küng—Tübingen (1966–69). He told TIME magazine in 1993 that while stationed near Hungary, he saw Hungarian Jews being sent to death camps. Two years later, he earned his doctorate at the University of Munich. Select from premium Pope Benedict Xvi of the highest quality. The youngest of three children, Ratzinger was six years old when the Nazis took power in Germany in 1933; his parents, who were staunch Catholics, were hostile to the regime. In March 1977, he was named archbishop of Munich and Freising and, three months later, was named a cardinal by Pope Paul VI. Benedictus XVI Joseph Ratzinger 19.IV.2005 - 28.II.2013. The pope and his prefect shared a similar history, both having lived under totalitarian regimes, and their views concerning the church were substantially the same. Pope Francis seemed taken aback by Benedict's frailty when he saw him at the Holy Door, and he asked the throngs of pilgrims in the piazza to send their prayers for his "good health." On Dec. 25, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI revealed a new-style nativity scene in the Vatican's St. Peter's Square. Author of. Joseph Ratzinger was elected "Pope" Benedict XVI. His choice of the name Benedict XVI recalled St. Benedict of Nursia, the patron saint of Europe and the founder of Western monasticism, as well as earlier popes of the same name, including Benedict XV (1914–22), who sought to mediate between the belligerents during World War I. Benedict XVI immediately took steps to continue John Paul’s dialogue with Judaism and Islam and with other Christian churches. On February 28 he formally resigned, taking the title pope emeritus. He contributed to a document that severely criticized the Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office and that eventually led to its reorganization by Pope Paul VI (1963–78) as the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Retired Pope Benedict XVI broke his silence to reaffirm the value of priestly celibacy, just as Pope Francis weighs whether to allow married men to be ordained. "War reparations (from World War I) weighed heavily on the German economy. He also overturned John Paul’s reform of the papal election process and restored the traditional practice when he declared that the election of a new pope requires a two-thirds majority of the cardinals attending the conclave. Pope emeritus Benedict XVI will celebrate Mass with his ailing brother on the feast of the Sacred Heart during his first full day in Germany Friday. Though Benedict has no further administrative or official duties and rarely appears in public, he did join Pope Francis on December 8, 2015, as he pushed open the great bronze doors of St. Peter's Basilica to launch his Holy Year of Mercy. Likewise, Pope Benedict XVI has been a great voice for peace in the conflicts in Iraq and throughout the Middle East. Pope Benedict XVI, who resigned as pope in 2013, made the comment in response to a question about what he had meant at his 2005 inauguration, when he urged Catholics to … Ratzinger returned to the seminary at the University of Munich in the fall of 1945 and was ordained a priest in 1951. For more than two decades, Ratzinger was the pope’s closest adviser. Pope Benedict has stated that he chose his papal name to honor both Saint Benedict, the patron saint of Europe, and Pope Benedict XV, who, as pope during World War I, worked tirelessly to end the war. Born: 16-Apr-1927 Birthplace: Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany Gender: Male Religion: Roman Catholic Race or Ethnicity: White Occupation: Religion Nationality: Germany Executive summary: Pope Emeritus Ordained 29 June 1951. In a pastoral letter, Benedict rebuked the bishops of the Irish church for a failure of leadership. Benedict made a controversial decision in January 2009 to revoke the excommunications of four bishops who in 1988 had been consecrated, without papal sanction, by Marcel Lefebvre (1905–91), an ultraconservative French archbishop who was excommunicated with them. He is the first pope from the Americas. He was elevated to the papacy in 2005. His father was a policeman and his mother a hotel cook (before she married). In February 2013, Benedict XVI resigned from his position as pope. Benedict stayed there while renovations were made to a convent, Mater Ecclesiae, in the southwest corner of Vatican City, which became his residence. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. https://www.biography.com/religious-figure/pope-benedict-xvi. In 2008 Benedict made his first visit as pope to the United States, where he spoke out against clerical sexual abuse and delivered an address at the United Nations. BENEDICT XVI. In 2010, allegations of sexual and physical abuse by parish priests and in parochial schools — particularly in Germany, Ireland and the United States — brought Benedict, and his role in the cases in Germany in particular, under close media scrutiny. II (2012); and Last Testament: In His Own Words (2016). If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Despite his reputation, even his harshest critics recognized his intelligence and his ability to discuss controversial matters in an objective and disinterested spirit. Pope decides against allowing married men to become priests. At the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), Ratzinger served as a chief theological expert to Cardinal Joseph Frings of Cologne, Germany. In November of that same year, in an act of outreach to conservative Anglicans, Benedict approved an apostolic constitution, or special decree, that allowed Anglican clergymen and laypersons to join the Roman Catholic Church while maintaining some Anglican traditions. 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