T hroughout his life Nietzsche thought of himself as an educator, but the time he spent working in higher education was not long and much of it he found frustrating. Seek zeros! The schools have no more important task than to teach rigorous thinking, cautious judgment, and consistent inference; therefore they should leave alone what is not suitable for these operations: religion, for example. How many Gymnasiums there are which are a hodgepodge of warped people and antiquated institutions and are nonetheless thought to be quite adequate! That "higher education" is no longer a privilege-the the democratism of Bildung, which has become "common"-too common. In every party there is one member who, by his all-too-devout pronouncement of party principles, provokes the others to apostasy. Beyond Good and Evilbecame one of the best-known in that group and is commonly viewed as a book written by a philosopher for philosophers. To understand Nietzsche's view of education requires us to grasp the importance Nietzsche attaches to being embedded in a particular historical and cultural frame. At this point in Nietzsche's life, he viewed certain types of philosophy as counterproductive, such as universalis… (S9.10), "Reason in the schools." "How is that accomplished?" Nietzsche attended a private preparatory school in Naumburg and then received a classical education at the prestigious Schulpforta school. I want, once and for all, not to know many things. His father died in 1849, andthe family relocated to Naumburg, where he grew up in a householdcomprising his mother, grandmother, two aunts, and his younger sister,Elisabeth. His  “Touching Books: Diderot, Novalis, and the Encyclopedia of the Future” appeared in Representations 114 (Spring 2011). To turn men into machines. Read "Nietzsche, Culture and Education" by available from Rakuten Kobo. The criticism of the institutions and the suggested path for change demand a comprehensive historical study of the foundations of these educational institutions, a study that points out their failures and the available avenues for change. After all, they can be sure that later on man's fogginess, habit, and need will slacken the bow of all-too-taut thinking. Nietzsche himself offers the best summary of his outlook: “[N]o one would strive for education if they knew how unbelievably small the number of truly educated people actually was, or ever could be. "Higher Education" and huge numbers-that is a contradiction to start with. .... One should consider the teacher, no less than the shopkeeper, a necessary evil, an evil to be kept as small as possible. (P442), One must be skilled in living on mount ai ns - seei ing the wretched ephemeral babble of politics and national self-seeking beneath oneself. The entire system of higher education in Germany has lost what matters most: the end as well as the means to the end. ©2000 NewFoundations. The history of philosophy, theology, and psychology since the early 20th century is unintelligible without him. CHAD WELLMON is an associate Professor of German at the University of Virginia and author, most recently, of Organizing Enlightenment: Information Overload and the Invention of the Modern Research University (Johns Hopkins, 2015). (P57), There are no educators. I see in this a regression not to paganism but to stupidity. "What is the task of all higher education?" By means of the concept of duty. In doing so, the article shows that Nietzsche’s lectures resonate in suggestive ways with twenty-first-century debates about higher education. (P58), Being nationalistic in the sense in which it is now demanded by public opinion would, it seems to me, be for us who are more spiritual not mere insipidity but dishonesty, a deliberate deadening of our better will and conscience. This mocking and enamored monster and pied piper of Athens, who made the most arrogant youths tremble and sob, was not only the wisest talker whoever lived: he was just as great in his silence (P 10), What inadequate people are employed and approved of under the name of private tutor, even by our most cultured and educated people. What the "higher schools" in Germany really achieve is a brutal training, designed to prepare huge numbers of young men, with as little loss of time as possible, to become usable, abusable, in government service. (P190), To educate educators! After the death of Nietzsche's grandmother in 1856, the family moved into their own house, now Nietzsche-Haus, a museum and Nietzsche study center. Nietzsche was born on October 15, 1844, in Röcken (near Leipzig),where his father was a Lutheran minister. In another sense, Nietzsche has in mind another. "Who is the perfect man?" Nietzsche was just twenty-four and far from completing his dissertation, but the university’s standards for employment were looser than those of its German counterparts. As in Plato's notion of innate knowledge, or anamnesis, Nietzsche believed that education consists mainly of a clearing away of "the weeds and rubbish and vermin" that attack and obscure "the real groundwork and import of thy being." Later, he transferred to a prestigious boarding school where he would receive a classical education. (S34), There are a thousand paths that have never been trodden - a thousand healths and hidden isles of life. The surest way to corrupt a youth is to instruct him to hold in higher esteem those who think alike than those who think differently. Educators are needed who have themselves been educated, superior, noble spirits, proved at every moment, proved by words and silence, representing culture that has grown ripe and sweet-not the learned louts whom secondaryschools and universities today offer our youth as "higher wet nurses". Nietzsche’s Sex Education In contrast to Nietzsche’s unapologetic statements in aphorism 363 about the ‘natural opposition’ between the sexes, aphorisms 68-71 of The Gay Science convey a sense of concern for the quandary that women find themselves exposed to in love relationships as a result of education … If one wants an end, one must also want the means: if one wants slaves, then one is a fool if one educates them to be masters. The education of youth by others is either an experiment, conducted on one as yet unknown and unknowable, or a leveling on principle, to make the new character, whatever it may be, conform to the habits and customs that prevail: in both cases, therefore, something unworthy of the thinker-the work of parents and teachers, whom an audaciously honest person has called nos ennemis naturels. How the Philologist Became a Physician of Modernity: Nietzsche’s Lectures on German Education by Paul Reitter and Chad Wellmon The essay begins: In January of 1869, Friedrich Nietzsche was offered a peach of a job—a professorship in classical philology at the University… In his early lectures on education (Nietzsche 1909), Nietzsche saw the state as necessarily furthering its own interests in terms of maximizing the utility value of its citizens and promoting a culture that would enhance government. Education is, at least in the early stages, a matter of teaching the child to see and to value particular things or, in Nietzsche's way of putting this, teaching the child to lie. On Reading Nietzsche on Education. (P51 1). When marrying, one should ask oneself this question: Do you believe that you will be able to converse well with this woman into your old age? ...then one can certainly find a main reason for the spiritual troubles in the surplus of teachers: on their account, one learns so little and so badly. . The greatest giver of alms is cowardice. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1908). Yet only a year later, Nietzsche had begun to move away from the kind of work—studies of Diogenes Laërtius, contributions to an Aeschylus lexicon, analyses of Roman and Greek meter—that had so enthused his mentor, prompting him to tout Nietzsche as the most precocious student he had ever seen. It may be that a man who sees his highest duty in the service of the State actually knows no higher duties; but there are beyond this, other men and other duties - and one of these duties, which for me, at any rate, is more important than service to the State, calls on one to destroy stupidity in every form, including this particular stupidity. There was no hope for a higher notion of education through State-funded efforts either. RETURN. In January of 1869, Friedrich Nietzsche was offered a peach of a job—a professorship in classical philology at the University of Basel. The challenge Nietzsche poses is so radical, I argue, and so unsettling, that those working in educational institutions characteristically fail to acknowledge its Young Nietzsche, 1861 Nietzsche attended a boys' school and then a private school, where he became friends with Gustav Krug and Wilhelm Pinder, all three of whom came from highly respected families. Friedrich Nietzsche - Friedrich Nietzsche - Nietzsche’s influence: Nietzsche once wrote that some men are born posthumously, and that is certainly true in his case. Nietzsche had a brilliant school and university career,culminating in May 1869 when he was called to a chair in classicalphilology at Basel. Death God Shadow. (P189), The better the state is established, the fainter is humanity. "What are the means?" And for these I write. (P467), Enemies of truth. ... (P494), "All truth is simple." Indeed, he pledged to a friend that he would “publicly expose” the whole Prussian system of education. Nietzsche and education by emphasising Nietzsche’s growing hostility to education as a historically accrued set of practices and beliefs. (P59), Why beggars still live. In 1858 he was admitted to Schulpforta, Germany’s leading Protestant boarding school. His book, Beyond Good and Evil was one of the last books he wrote, during the period of 1886 to 1888 - a two year period when he authored a total of seven books. Wisdom sets limits to knowledge too. For seventeen years I have never tired of calling attention to the despiritualizing influence of our current science- industry. I admire the courage and wisdom of Socrates in everything he did, said-and did not say. The target of Nietzsche’s censure is a pair of tendencies: “One is the drive to expand education as much as possible… to extend education and culture to an ever wider circle”; the second “is the drive to narrow and weakenit… [which] expects education to give up its highest claim to autonomy and submit to serve another form of life, the state.” Although it would be a mistake to see Nietzsche as a champion of either liberalism or democracy, his objection to educational expansion is not that higher learning must be rese… In 1850 the family moved to Naumburg on the Saale River, where Nietzsche attended a private preparatory school, the Domgymnasium. Nietzsche was delighted, so much so that upon learning the good news, he broke into song: he spent the rest of the day singing melodies from Tannhäuser, his favorite opera. Your true educators and molders disclose the true original meaning and the basic material of your being, which is something quite incapable of being educated or molded, and to which access is in any case difficult since it is fettered and chained as it is. Nietzsche studied theology and philosophy at the University of Bonn in hopes of becoming a priest like his father. (P63), The most dangerous party member. (P50), The dying Socrates. And everywhere an$ indecent haste prevails, as if something would be lost if the young man of twenty-three were not yet "finished", or if he did not yet know the answer to the "main question": which calling? "Which philosophy offers the highest formula for the civil servant?" Nietzsche had also begun to show signs of deep disillusionment. On the other hand, the other maxim says that the educator should cultivate all existing abilities, tend them and establish a harmonious relationship between them. This article makes the case that the lecture series On the Future of Our Educational Institutions, which Friedrich Nietzsche held in 1872 and scholars have long neglected, marks a crucial point in the development of the philosopher’s outlook. What conditions the decline of German culture? This driving force determines our own educational institutions, which Nietzsche presents in perfectly balanced economic terms, as so many given and chained conclusions, as if we were talking as indeed we are talking about a formula for increasing the gross national product of education per se: ‘as much knowledge and education as possible, therefore as much demand as possible, therefore as … At age 24, he was the youngest ever appointed tothat post. Succinctly titled Anti-Education, the critique Nietzsche offers is much more nuanced than that, and has a great deal of relevance for our time. Your educators can be nothing more than your liberators. One day, when in the opinion of the world one has long been educated, one discovers oneself: that is where the task of the thinker begins; now the time has come to invoke his aid-not as an educator but as one who has educated himself and thus has experience. From the realm of the famous "inner facts", of which not a single one has so far proved to be factual. That education, that Bildting, is itself an end-and not "the Reich"-and that educators are needed to that end, and not secondary- school teachers and university scholars-that has been forgotten. In these presentations, Nietzsche took aim at all of Germany’s chief institutions of postprimary learning: the Realschule, the Gymnasium, and the university. If all alms were given only from pity, all beggars would have starved long ago. People have believed at all times that they knew what a cause is; but whence did we take our knowledge-or more precisely, our faith that we had such knowledge? In Schopenhauer as Educator, Nietzsche argues that inequalities of talent and achievement are actually productive of excellence in all students. What does not destroy me, makes me stronger. Learning to think: in our schools one no longer has any idea of this. In present day Germany no one is any longer free to give his children a noble education: our "higher schools" are all set up for the most ambiguous mediocrity, with their teachers, curricula, and teaching aims. All credibility, all good conscience, all evidence of truth come only from the senses. He believes that attempts to minimize inequality by slowing the progress of the highest-achieving backfires. Ladies and Gentlemen, -- The subject I now propose to consider with you is such a serious and important one, and is in a sense so disquieting, that, like One must learn to love oneself with a wholesome and healthy love, so that one can bear to be with oneself and need not roam. If the trouble in the German situation today has perhaps its main reason in the fact that too many people live by trade and want to live well . Nietzsche, Culture and Education brings together a collection of specially commissioned essays on the theme of Nietzsche's cultural critique and its use in and effect on educational theory. Your true educators and molders disclose the true original meaning and the basic material of your being, which is something quite incapable of being educated or molded, and to which access is in any case … "Good" initially and properly designated only the right of those individuals with social and political power to live their lives by sheer force of will. . Cooper, David E. Journal of Philosophy of Education, v17 n1 p119-26 1983. (P91), From a doctoral examination. I should argue that it is possible to leave a university with as much as a doctorate and be clueless as to what Nietzsche actually means in any or all of these three respects. The task of education for him, it seemed to me, would be to transform the whole man into a living, animated system of suns and planets and to discover the laws of this higher mechanism. The international character of the contributors gives this work a polyvalent perspective on these areas of Nietzsche… Friedrich Nietzsche. I am now concerned with something very comprehensible, namely, explaining how all of us, through Schopenhauer, can educate ourselves against our times-because we have the advantage of really knowing these times through him. (P532), Against that positivism which stops before phenomena, saying "there are only facts," I should say: no, it is precisely facts that do not exist, only interpretations.... (P458), The error of false causality. Two papers by Haim Gordon and Keith Jenkins (Journal of Philosophy of Education; v14 p181-92 and v16 p251-54) which interpret the educational views of Nietzsche are critiqued. Education is, at least in the early stages, a matter of teaching the child to see and to value particular things or, in Nietzsche's way of putting this, teaching the child to lie. The philologist: he teaches grinding. Nietzsche's Theory of Education. Is not my happiness precisely the sight of many who are different? (S5-6), One maxim demands that the educator recognize the real strengths of his pupils at the outset and then direct all his skill, all the nourishment and sunshine, to the goal of helping that one excellence to attain real maturity and fruitfulness. ... (P467), Marriage as a long conversation. Friedrich Nietzsche was a German doctor and philosopher that was born in the mid-19th century. Analyst: Richard D. Stoy. But he may console himself with these words, which Schopenhauer, his great educator once used: "A happy life is impossible: the highest obtainable by man is a heroic life." Nietzsche offered a quasi-historical account of the harmful consequences of traditional ethics in Zur Geneologie der Moral (On the Genealogy of Morals) (1887). Philology, he maintained, was both a key symptom and a cause of a larger process of cultural decline. Even in the universities, even among the real scholars of philosophy, logic as a theory, as a practice, as a craft, is beginning to die out. Friedrich Nietzsche argues that it is not. (S45), And to say it one more. (P71), Here we experience the consequence of a doctrine which has been preached from all of the housetops: that the State is the highest goal of humanity and that there are no higher duties for a man than to serve the State. Everything else in marriage is transitory, but most of the time during the association belongs to conversation. To understand Nietzsche's view of education requires us to grasp the importance Nietzsche attaches to being embedded in a particular historical and cultural frame. The civil servant. You search? You seek followers? Our overcrowded secondary schools, our overworked, stupified second ary- school teachers, are a scandal: for one to defend such conditions, as the professors at Heidelberg did recently, there may be perhaps causesreasons there are none. Dreadful. (P468), Not suitable as a party member. Abstract. I. To understand Nietzsche's view of education requires us to grasp the importance Nietzsche attaches to being embedded in a particular historical and cultural frame. But the first ones must educate themselves! Even now man and man's earth are unexhausted and undiscovered. On top of teaching eight hours a week at the University, Nietzsche would be required to give an additional six hours of instruction at a local Gymnasium But this wouldn’t be a problem, Nietzsche had told his Doktorvater, Friedrich Ritschl, one of Germany’s most renowned classicists. Let it not be forgotten that military privileges really compel an all-too-great attendance in the higher schools, and thus their downfall. (SIO-11), One repays a teacher badly if one always remains nothing but a pupil. Ritschl passed that message on to the hiring committee, along with his imprimatur, and the appointment was made. (S7-8), Corruption. When situated within the conditions and debates to which they respond, the lectures reveal how Nietzsche the philologist became the physician of modernity and its ills. (P470). On Reading Nietzsche on Education On Reading Nietzsche on Education Cooper, David E. 1983-07-01 00:00:00 On Reading Nietzsche on Education The educational views of great philosophers often receive scant attention. (S36), The State is never concerned with the truth, but only with the truth which is useful to it, or to be more precise, with anything which is useful to it whether it is truth, half-truth, or error. kind of ‘ ‘educating’’ that is concerned with educators who are ‘ ‘liberators’’ and capable of. One need only read German books: there is no longer the remotest recollection that thinking requires a technique, a teaching curriculum, a will to mastery.... (P512), That educating philosopher of whom I dreamed would certainly not only discover the central strength, but would also prevent it from disrupting the other forces. Educators are lacking, not counting the most exceptional of exceptions, the very first condition of education: hence the decline of German culture. It would be a profound misunderstanding if one wanted to adduce German science against me-it would also be proof that one has not read a word that I have written. (P507). And that is the secret of all education: it does not provide artificial limbs, false noses or eye-glasses - on the contrary what could provide these is merely pseudo-education. Yet in our rapidly changing times, J.G. The position, to be sure, had what some scholars might have considered a drawback. (P50), Out of life's school of war. Nietzsche on Education. . Locke and Kant are among the eminent victims. Quotes from Friedrich Nietzsche on education. The question of whether Nietzsche really advocated nihilism or not is largely dependent upon the context: Nietzsche's philosophy is a moving target because he had so many different things to say on so many different subjects, and not all of what he wrote is … The three tasks for which educators are required: one must learn to see, one must learn to think, one must learn to speak and write: the goal in all three is a noble culture. (P63), I mistrust all systematizers and I avoid them. Just after two semesters, he quit upon realizing that his personal beliefs were widely different from the theological curriculum. Whoever thinks much is not suitable as a party member: he soon thinks himself right through the party. Kant's: the civil servant as a thing-in-itself raised up to be judge over the civil servant as phenomenon. As a thinker, one should speak only of self-education. Education is rather liberation, a rooting out of all weeds, rubbish and vermin from around the buds of the plants, a radiation of light and warmth, a loving, whispering fall of night rain; ... . (P70), The teacher as a necessary evil . This chapter argues that Nietzsche’s construal of the relation of art to truth is always more subtle than that simple impression suggests. Is that not doubly a lie? All great, all beautiful things can never be common property: pulchrum est paucorum hominum. (SR) (P63), Help yourself, then everyone will help you. (545), Rule? You would multiply yourself by ten, by a hundred? How the Philologist Became a Physician of Modernity: Nietzsche’s Lectures on German Education, “Touching Books: Diderot, Novalis, and the Encyclopedia of the Future”. The hard serfdom to which the tremendous range of sciences condemns every scholar today is a main reason why those with a fuller, richer, profounder disposition no longer find a congenial education and congenial educators. "Who serves as the model?" Nietzsche, Future of Our Educational Institutions 1 On The Future of Our Educational Institutions* By Friedrich Nietzsche First Lecture (Delivered on the 16th of January 1872). PAUL REITTER is the director of the Humanities Institute at Ohio State University, where he also teaches in the German Department. (S8-9), ... Where among our contemporaries are the ethical models and distinguished people who might serve for us all, learned and unlearned, aristocratic and plebian alike, as the epitome of creative morality in our time? ... (P568), (S) Schopenhauer as Educator, by Friedrich Nietzsche, (1874) Translated by J. W. Hillesheim and M. R. Simpson, Gateway Editions, Henry Regnery Company, Chicago (1965), (P) The Portable NIETZSCHE, by Walter Kaufmann, (1954) The Viking Press, New York. Continue reading …. His most recent book is Bambi’s Jewish Roots and Other Essays on German-Jewish Culture (Bloomsbury, 2015). Nietzsche’s Basel lectures are notable for a number of reasons, including the new urgency and depth gained by Nietzsche’s early reckoning with his discipline and the German educational system as a whole. He also attacked individual academic specializations, including his own field. All things are subject to interpretation whichever interpretation prevails at a given time is a function of power and not truth. When Nietzsche set off for Basel, then, Ritschl likely felt confident that he had helped launch another brilliant academic career. All higher education belongs only to the exception: one must be privileged to have a right to so high a privilege. Theory of Value. Man must learn to be bored. Power Truth Time. edited 8/18/11. Public opinions-private lazinesses. Education reform requires in Nietzsche's view a trenchant criticism of contemporary educational institutions. The will to a system is a lack of integrity. Nietzsche soon made good on his promise through a series of lectures titled On the Future of Our Educational Institutions, which were held at Basel’s city museum between January and March of 1872. How inadequate to the task of making a human being are the highest institutes of learning, the universities, the leaders and the institutions with which we are content! But as far as the influence of the schools reaches, they should enforce what is essential and distinctive in man: "reason and science, man's very highest power" - so Goethe, at least, judges. Convictions are more dangerous enemies of truth than lies. There are many passages in Nietzsche’s corpus which suggest that, for Nietzsche, the evaluative attitudes to life that may be derived from art are simply a matter of illusion, falsification, and deception. He excelled academically and … (S104), ... German Universities: what an atmosphere prevails among their scholars, what desolate spirituality-and how contented and lukewarm it has become! “Thus Spake Zarathustra, a Book for All and None” The most general deficiency in our sort of culture and education is gradually dawning on me: no one learns, no one strives towards, no one teaches--enduring loneliness. Press my type on others? Friedrich Nietzsche. (P441), What? Nietzsche looks backwards, to the Greeks of antiquity, for true education and inspiration. Friedrich Nietzsche in Twilight of the Idols argues that the student must learn three things: to see, to think, and to write. This kind of education, of course, cannot be formalized within our present institutions, cannot be marketed to a mass audience, and cannot serve the interests of the …
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